“No Taxation Without Representation”

There were twelve years between the signing of the Treaty of Paris on February 1763 and the ride of Paul Revere on April 1775. Tension and anger between colonists and the empire increasingly rose to the point of no return. During the short period of 1762-1770 the causing disruption in its colonial policy. Furthermore, it found itself fighting wars in Europe, West Indies and Asia which drastically increased the cost of servicing its national debt. At the top of its agenda was the lightening of the burden on British …

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Stamp Act Congress

The Stamp Act Congress met in the Federal Hall building in New York City between October 7 and 25, 1765. It was the first colonial action against a British measure and was formed to protest the  issued by British Parliament on March 1765. The Stamp Act Congress was attended by  of nine of the thirteen colonies. Virginia, North Carolina and Georgia were prevented from attending because their loyal governors refused to convene the assemblies to elect delegates. New Hampshire did not attend but approved the resolutions once Congress was over.

Federal …

British Taxation in Colonial America »

List of British Acts on Colonial America

The Navigation Acts were trade rules that governed commerce between Britain and its colonies. The first of the Navigation Acts existed for almost two centuries and was repealed in 1849. The laws were designed to protect British economic interests in colonial trade and to protect its industry against the rapidly growing Dutch navigation trade.

The purpose of the Molasses Act was to protect British West Indies exports to the American colonies from the more fertile French and Spanish islands of Martinique and Santo Domingo. It was not designed to raise revenue …

British Taxation in Colonial America »

British Politics 1763-1775

During the first eight years of King George III reign the British government had six ministries. British politics was in a state of chaos and political infighting between Whig groups disrupted colonial policy.
In the last years of King George II, Britain was unified under the leadership of William Pitt who had led Britain to war against the French in North America and India. The war had been costly and Britain was highly indebted however Pitt wanted to declare war on Spain before Spain attacked Britain. Not finding support among George …

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Participants of the Stamp Act Congress

Representatives from nine colonies attended the Stamp Act Congress.
From Massachusetts: James Otis, Samuel Adams, Oliver Partridge and Timothy Ruggles.
From Rhode Island: Henry Ward and Metcalf Bowler
From Connecticut: William Johnson, Eliphalet Dyer and David Rowland.
From New York: Phillip Livingston, William Bayard, John Cruger, Robert Livingston and Leonard Lispinard.
From Pennsylvania: John Morton, George Bryan and John Dickinson.
From New Jersey: Hendrick Fisher, Robert Ogden and Joseph Gordon.
From Delaware: Caesar Rodney and Thomas McKean.
From Maryland: Edward Tilghman, Thomas Ringgold and William Murdock.
From South Carolina: John Rutledge, Thomas Lynch and Christopher Gadsden.
Secretary: John Cotton
President: Timothy …

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Participants of the Stamp Act

Samuel Adams (1722-1803)
A graduate from Harvard College, unsuccessful businessman and tax collector, entered politics to coordinate efforts against as a leader of . The Sons of Liberty were responsible for the , he was portrayed as a master of propaganda. He was an official of the Massachusetts House of Representatives and one of the founding fathers of the United States. He was a cousin of President John Adams.

 Samuel Adams
James Otis (1725-1783)
James Otis graduated from Harvard College. He was a top lawyer in Boston and became known as an opponent …

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The Repeal of the Stamp Act

The  was nullified before it went into effect and was repealed by parliament on March 18, 1766 under the Marquis of Rockingham.
In the summer of 1765 King George III fired George Grenville and replaced him with Charles Watson-Wentworth, Marquis of Rockingham. For the new Prime Minister the only alternative to repealing the tax was a long and costly civil war with the American colonies. Britain, as the world greatest power, could not give up on the decision to uphold the tax and give in to mobs and activist in its …

Stamp Act, Timeline of British Acts on America »

1765 – Stamp Act

What was the Stamp Act?
The Stamp Act was a tax imposed by the British government on the American colonies. British taxpayers already paid a stamp tax and Massachusetts briefly experimented with a similar law, but the Stamp Act imposed on colonial residents went further than the existing ones. The primary goal was to raise money needed for military defenses of the colonies.
This legislative act was initiated by the British prime minister and adopted by the British Parliament. The decision was taken on March 1765 but did  not take effect until …

Declaratory Act, Documents »

1766 Declaratory Act – Original Text

AN ACT for the better securing the dependency of his Majesty’s dominions in America upon the crown and parliament of Great Britain.
WHEREAS several of the houses of representatives in his Majesty’s colonies and plantations in America, have of late, against law, claimed to themselves, or to the general assemblies of the same, the sole and exclusive right of imposing duties and taxes upon his Majesty’s subjects in the said colonies and plantations; and have, in pursuance of such claim, passed certain votes, resolutions, and orders, derogatory to the legislative authority …

Declaratory Act, Timeline of British Acts on America »

The Declaratory Act

What was the Declaratory Act?
The Declaratory Act was a measure issued by British Parliament asserting its authority to make laws binding the colonists “in all cases whatsoever” including the right to tax. The Declaratory Act was a reaction of British Parliament to the failure of the  as they did not want to give up on the principle of imperial taxation asserting its legal right to tax colonies.
When Parliament  it concurrently approved the Declaratory Act to justify its repeal. It also declared all resolution issued by the  null and void. This …

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Documents, Townshend Acts »

An act for granting certain duties in the British colonies and plantations in America; for allowing a drawback of the duties of customs upon the exportation, from this kingdom, of coffee and cocoa nuts of the produce of the said colonies or plantations; for discontinuing the drawbacks payable on china earthen ware exported to America; and for more effectually preventing the clandestine running of goods in the colonies and plantations.
WHEREAS it is expedient that a revenue should be raised in your MajestyÂ’s dominions in America, for making a more certain …